Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics
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Wed, 01 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0330
Wed, 01 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0330

Theoretical investigation of structural, electronical, and optical properties of [18] DBA annulene and its derivatives
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20764.html
The structure geometry, vibrational frequencies, electronic and optical properties of a series of donoracceptor substituted dodecadehydrotribenzo [18] annulenes ([18] DBA) were investigated using the B3LYP method at a 631+G (d, p) basis set. After optimization of the structures, HOMO and LUMO energies, gap energy (Eg), global hardness (&eta;), chemical potential (&mu;), electrophilicity index (&omega;), maximum charge transfer (βNmax), electronegativity (&chi;), Fermi level (EFL), wavelength (&lambda;), oscillator power (f0), and participation percentage (% Con) for [18] DBA derivatives. A significant increase in the first hyperpolarizability was observed by substitution on [18] DBA. The results of this study may be used to design and construct materials with adjustable electrical properties. The results indicate that the NLO response of [18] DBA could be enhanced by functionalizing different substitutions. In general, the NLO response and electronic properties of the S110 are more excellent than others.

Effect of collisions, ionisation and nonextensivity on sheath formation in an electronegative warm plasma under electron emission from the wall
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20903.html
The effect of collisions, ionisation and nonextensivity is studied numerically in an electronegative warm plasma associated with electron emission from the wall. Electrostatic potential, space charge density, net negative charge density and emitted electron beam density are plotted with the normalised distance to see the effects of aforesaid parameters The negative ion is described with fluid equations to see it&rsquo;s effect of the mass ratio (negative ion to positive ion) on emitted electron beam density inside the sheath. The three types of electronegative plasma taken are CF_4, O_2 and C_60. The emitted beam electron density is more in number at the wall for higher collisional and ionisation case and less in higher mass ratio. For superextensive case the emitted beam electrons is lesser than compared to the Boltzmann distributed electrons. The sheath thickness is found to be more in higher mass ratio, emitted beam electrons and super extensive case while for higher collisional and ionisation case the sheath thickness is less.

Holographic entanglement entropy in the fourthorder scaleinvariant gravity
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20765.html
In this paper, we use the holographic method to compute the entanglement entropy for different regions in the fourthorder scaleinvariant theory of gravity. In four dimensions, the action of scaleinvariant gravity contains a parameter where the moduli space has some distinguished points, precisely, the space of solutions contains the Loggravity and for this specific solution, we compute the entanglement entropy. We also use the numerical method to investigate mutual information and tripartite information. Moreover, we make a comment on the sign of these quantities.

Theoretical study of ISB conduction optical absorption and impurity binding energy associated with lowest excited states in QW with a new modulated potential
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21117.html
This paper provides a theoretical investigation of the ground and first excitedstates donor impurity binding energy and the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in quantum well with novel modulated potential called RedouaneHaddou potential (RHP). Within the effectivemass theory, the Schr&ouml;dinger equation has been calculated numerically using the finite element method. The analytical expressions of the optical absorption coefficients are obtained within compact density matrix theory. Our results reveal that the Aparameter has a significant influence on the confinement profile and electron states, therefore, the binding energy as well as the optical properties of the investigated system. It increases the binding energy and redshift (blueshift) associated with drop (improvement) of the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients related to 2p&rarr;1s,2p&rarr;2s, and 3s&rarr;2p transitions. Moreover, it is noticed that with an appropriate choice of the Aparameter and structure dimension, the optical response of the investigated system can be tailored in a controllable manner.

THz generation by a periodic array of a photoconductive antenna of GaAs material in the presence of a magnetic field
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20797.html
Terahertz radiation finds applications in medical science, spectroscopy, security screening, communication, etc. There are several methods that focus on the interaction of lasers with plasma, and laser beating process is an effective scheme for the Terahertz radiation generation. In this scheme, a resonance between the beating frequency and plasma frequency needs to be achieved. In general, only the plasma electrons respond to the lasers field. However, achieving a Terahertz source with variable frequency and power is very difficult, even with the application of an external magnetic field. In this article, we give an analytical analysis of how employing an external magnetic field, a laserinduced transient current in an array of GaAs structures can be used to increase the power of the emitted radiation. The magnetic field has the benefit of not stopping the carriers since these gyrate before they reache the corner, which causes the frequency to affect the current and helps lasting this interaction for a longer time. As a result, 23 cycles of the higher frequency pulse are generated, increasing the power by 100 times.

Magnetic susceptibility and Magnetocaloric effect of FrostMusulin potential subjected to Magnetic and AharonovBohm (Flux) fields for CO and NO diatomic molecules
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21170.html
In this paper, we perform a nonrelativistic study of FrostMusulin potential (FMP) impacted by the external magnetic and AB flux fields for the CO and NO diatomic molecules using the NikiforovUvarov method with the GreeneAldrich approximation to the centrifugal barrier. The numerical computation of the proposed potential reveals that the combined impact of the magnetic and AB flux fields completely removes the degeneracy of the energy spectra and controls the behavior of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) by acting as a regulating factor to cool or heat the MCE. Also, the thermomagnetic plots obtained for the analyzed dimer molecules agreed perfectly with previous work. This research has the potential to be applied in molecular physics and MCE studies for a variety of molecules.

Optical and morphological characterization of nanostructured AgO thin films
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20798.html
Silver Oxide (AgO) thin films were prepared by using a cylindrical direct current reactive magnetron sputtering system at 105 torr initial pressure on BK7 glass substrate. Samples deposited for 3, 5 and 7 minutes. Surface characterization of AgO thin films in the nanometer scale can be accurately determined using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Xray diffraction (XRD). The average roughness (Ravg), maximum peak to valley height (Rt) and root mean square (Rrms) roughness are used to analyze the surface morphology of AgO films. The linear optical absorption data were measured in the visiblenear infrared spectral regions and the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of thin films is evaluated by the moir&eacute; deflectometery technique. The investigation indicates that, increase in AgO thickness leads to reduction in nonlinear refractive index.

Investigation of plasmaactivated water effects on preservation and physicochemical properties of Petroselinum crispum and Lepidium sativum
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21398.html
The present study aims at highlighting plasma, plasmaactivated water (PAW) in particular, as a means of alternative, an innovative and unique method for its application in different aspects of food and vegetable processing and preservation. To investigate the effect of PAW on nutrient retention in vegetables, an experimental set was used to produce PAW that processes deionized water (DI). The concentrations of reactive species in PAW were calculated to compare their effect on nutrient retention. Then, the vegetables were washed with DI and PAW for 20 minutes. The samples were stored at 4 &deg; C for 14 days. Immediately after washing and on the seventh and fourteenth days, nutrient content levels were measured. The results showed that using PAW causes the nutrients to remain in the vegetables for a longer time. We show that nutrient persistence in vegetables depends on the concentration and the type of reactive species in PAW.

Electron spin orientation dependence on momentum in pseudo gap phase of Bi2212
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20800.html
The aim of the paper is to study the electron spin direction dependence on momentum due to the presence of Rashba spinorbit coupling in the pseudogap phase of Bi2212 bilayer. The nontrivial spin texture in kspace is found tuneable by electric field. The dependence is reported earlier by a group of workers in a spinand angleresolved photoemission spectroscopic measurement. The synthetic spinorbit coupling, characterized by the broken timereversal symmetry, is expected to be useful for the manipulation of the spin orientation.

Structural and electronic properties of Li_n, B_n, N_n and O_n (n=14) clustering on graphene: Density functional theory calculations with dispersive forces correction.
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21455.html
We have performed density functional theory calculations to study the adsorption of Li, B, N, and O clusters on graphene to clarify the interaction of these atoms with a graphene sheet. The stable structure, the adsorption energy, and the density of states (DOS) of atomgraphene systems are calculated. The obtained results of the structural, adsorption and interaction energies show that light atoms on graphene show physisorption/chemisorption mechanisms with and without clusteringoccurrence. More interestingly, the formation of diatomic molecules is noticed. For example, Li atoms prefer to be physisorbed where as B atoms prefer the clustering configuration on the graphene sheet. For N and O atoms, the results show that the formation of molecules on a graphene sheet is preferred. The densities of states calculations have been performed to study the electronic properties of the studied systems. The results show that electronic structures are affected by the increasing concentration and the nature of adsorbed light atoms.

Optimizing electron trajectories in combined helical wiggler and solenoidal magnetic fields for effective particle acceleration
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20799.html
Charged particle acceleration is the subject of great interest because of its applications in various fields such as thermonuclear fusion, nuclear physics, radiation generation, coherent harmonic generation, probing materials, medical science, food preservation, etc. The particle acceleration is usually done by interacting the particles with strong electric fields. Since the magnetic field diverts the particle motion, this also plays a vital role in the particle interaction with the electromagnetic fields. In the present work, a combined configuration of helical wiggler and solenoidal magnetic fields has been used to optimize the trajectory of the electron for effective particle acceleration. In this concept, the solenoidal field controls the transverse components of the electron velocities and wiggler field confines the helical motion of the electron. The optimized values of magnitudes of solenoidal field and wiggler magnetic field and its period / wavelength make this configuration useful for particle acceleration in waveguide.

Numerical investigations of electronselfinjection in different shaped bubbles in wakefield acceleration
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20827.html
Electronselfinjection in bubble wakefield acceleration is the new concept for acceleration of electrons inside bubble. In this technique, selfinjected plasma electrons have been used for acceleration whose advantage is that there is no need of external source of electrons. In our case, we have carried out numerical investigations of selfinjected plasma electrons in different shaped bubbles such as spherical, longitudinal ellipsoid and transverse ellipsoid bubble. For these numerical investigations, by carrying out relativistic Hamiltonian analysis of plasma electrons, we have used 4th order RungeKutta (RK) method by employing MATLAB ode45, a nonstiff differential equations solver. We have discussed different parameters such as impact parameter, radius of bubble, bubble velocity for their effect on the formation of bubbles with different shapes and selfinjection of the electrons.

A new method for the Ξ©_ccb baryon spectroscopy in the nonrelativistic quark model: ansatz approach
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20850.html
Triply heavy &Omega;_ccb baryon is considerable theoretical interest in a baryonic analogue of heavy quarkonium because of the colorsinglet bound state of three heavy quark (c, b) combination inside. In this paper, we will discuss &Omega;_ccb baryon in the nonrelativistic quark model based on the ansatz approach in Hypercentral Constituent Quark Model. The masses of the ground and excited states of the &Omega;_ccb baryon are computed. The hypercentral potential is regarded as a combination of the color Coulomb plus linear confining term and the sixdimensional harmonic oscillator potential in this work. Also, we added the first order correction and the spindependent part to the hypercentral potential. The Regge trajectories has been plotted for this baryon and a detailed comparison with previous theoretical calculations is given. Further, using the computed spectroscopic data, the magnetic moments are determined for the ground state based on the nonrelativistic Hypercentral Constituent Quark Model.

Dopant and milling time effect on impedance and electrical properties of perovskite ceramics
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21616.html
Tungsten doped Barium Titanate (BT) with composition BaW0.05Ti0.95O3 (BWT) were prepared by using ball milling technique for different hours (10h, 20h and 30h). In the present paper, the microstructural, dielectric and impedance studies are discussed. The microstructural studies using XRD data reveals the formation of single phased tetragonal structure and perovskite structure. The dielectric properties of BT nanoceramics were significantly enhanced by the partial replacement of W (at B site) showing the diffuse phase transition at 80&deg;C. Dielectric loss rises as the temperature rises. There is increase in charge carrier mobility which results in increased polarization and significant dielectric loss. Additionally, compared to the unmilled BWT ceramic sample, the 30h milled had superior dielectric characteristics with high dielectric constant and reduced loss. The nature of the phase transition was confirmed by the CurieWeiss law and the ferroelectric analysis was carried by wellestablished PE loops. The impedance studies were carried out by plotting Nyquist plots. The ac conductivity plot follows Arrhenius relation and the calculated activation energy confirms the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior of the material.

Impact of ptype semiconductor substrate on the transient response of metalsemiconductormetal photodetector
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20870.html
In this paper, using finite difference method, the effect of adding a player at the back of a metalsemiconductormetal (MSM) photodetector (PD) on the spatial electric charge distribution and the transient response of the device is numerically studied. To this aim, the fundamental equations of the semiconductor device, i.e., two current continuity timedependent equations have been considered coupled with Poisson's equation. The IV curve of the MSM photodetector is obtained as the main characteristics of each semiconductor device. Moreover, the variations of electrostatic potential, electron and hole concentrations are determined in the MSM photodetector with a player at the back of the active layer. It is observed that the peak transient response of an MSM device is improved by backgating the device as more electrons are injected to the semiconductor layer and the slower charge carriers (the holes) to be removed from the top circuit.

Enhancement of Seebeck coefficient with full spin polarization of CsMgN2 Thin Films: A DFT Study
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21617.html
Structural, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of the CsMgN2 compound with its thin film films of CsMg and MgN terminations have been studied in a FirstPrinciples study. The total energy changes (EV) versus the unit cell volume of bulk show better stability in the ferromagnetic than the nonmagnetic phase. The EV diagrams of film CsMg and MgN terminations have the ground state points at the ferromagnetic phase. The derivative bulk modulus of CsMg termination is like the bulk phase, which refers to the ionic bonds between atoms.The magnetic moment of the bulk and two mentioned terminations have the integers of 3&micro;B, 10 &micro;B, and 13 &micro;B, respectively. The DOS and bandstructure diagrams by the mBJ and GGA approximations confirm the halfmetallic behavior of the bulk and the mentioned terminations. The energy gaps of their semiconductor phase are 1.40eV, 0.64eV, and 0.20eV, for the bulk, CsMg, and MgN terminations, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient of CsMg termination in 200K temperature is much higher than the bulk case. The merit figure of coefficient (ZT) shows that bulk and mentioned terminations have high thermoelectric quality at up spin.

Laser ablation produced graphene/MOF5 nanocomposite: antibacterial properties
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20902.html
Preparation of graphene decorated MOF5 nanocomposite by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) method in liquid environment has been investigated for the first time. Firstly, MOF5 nanostructures were synthesized by irradiating a highpurity zinc (Zn) plate in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution containing terephthalic acid ligand with Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Using the fundamental wavelength of Nd:YAG laser at 1046 nm and pulse width of 7 ns, three samples of MOF5 nanostructures were produced in the solutions with three ligand concentrations. Then, by laser ablation of a graphite target in the MOF5 nanostructures suspensions, graphene/MOF5 nanocomposites were produced. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a gramnegative and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as a grampositive bacterium. Morphology of MOF5 nanostructures was modified due to presence of graphene nanosheets in the structure of nanocomposite. TEM images show that square shape MOF5 particles were located on the surface of graphene nanosheets. Concentration of synthesized samples was increased with increasing the ligand concentration in the liquid environment of ablation. And stronger antibacterial effects of nanocomposites were observed against the gramnegative bacteria due to their gravitation of opposite charges.

Excitation of R and Lwaves by laser propagation through overdense magnetized plasma and their verification
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21157.html
Laserplasma interaction is a fascinating subject in view of its various applications in wave generation, particle acceleration, radiation generation, etc. The laser beam gets reflected at the vacuumplasma interface if the plasma density is equal or larger than the critical density. However, in the presence of strong magnetic field in the order of kilo Tesla, the beam can travel some distance through overdense plasma. Here E&times;B heating and pondermotive force play role for the laser beams to propagate through the overdense plasma. In the present article, taking the external magnetic field along the propagation direction of the laser beam we have observed the R and L waves to be excited. The applied magnetic field is chosen in such way that the laser frequency ππ falls between the electron cyclotron frequency πππ and ion cyclotron frequency πππ. Under this situation, it generates only an Rwave. If the laser frequency is considered to be less than the ion cyclotron frequency ( ππππ ππ&lt;πππ) then an Lwave is additionally generated. In both the cases, an electrostatic disturbance is also formed with different but significant electric field amplitudes. We simulate these R and Lwaves in 1D by using ParticleinCell (PIC) simulation using the EPOCH4.17.10. Specifically, the electric and magnetic fields are studied that are associated with these waves, and the waves are verified based on the dispersion relation and the polarization studies.

Applicability of diffraction elastic constants to rationalize anisotropic broadening of Xray diffraction line profiles from deformed metals
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20912.html
A simple method, to rationalize anisotropic Xray line widths of deformed FCC metallic samples is presented. The method is based on normalized Diffraction Elastic Constant ratio (DECR) within the framework of Stokes Wilson approximation and Gaussian microstrain distribution. The observed dispersion in classical WilliamsonHall plot was significantly reduced if DECR based correction was applied to the integral breadths. Classical grain interaction models such as the Reuss and ReussVoigt average (NeerfeldHill) models were used to calculate the elastic constants of deformed polycrystals of Aluminium and Copper. It is observed that if nonuniform microstrains are present in the sample (mostly in the case of dislocated crystals) then the Reuss model is more appropriate than the ReussVoigt average model and is observed in the case of filed or ballmilled samples of Cu and Al. The nonlinearity in the anisotropy corrected WilliamsonHall is indicative of line widening caused by the dislocation.

Electrodeposition of cobalt oxide thin films for potential applications
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21727.html
Cobalt oxide thin films at varied molar concentrations were prepared by electrodeposition technique. UltravioletVisible (UV/VIS) analysis conducted on the grown films revealed blue shift in the absorption edge at increased molar concentrations, which is a consequence of band gap widening. The band gap values (3.65 eV to 3.85 eV) in this research are greater than the value (2.4 eV) for the bulk phase of cobalt oxide. This increase in band gap can be likened to higher concentration effect and quantumsize phenomenon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated a porous nature for the material, suggesting its ability in absorbing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thus confirming its use as an absorber material for solar cells fabrication. Energy Dispersive Xray (EDX) study confirmed the growth of cobalt oxide. Xray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the crystalline nature of the films with grain sizes within the range of 0.7 nm to 1 nm for varied molar concentrations. Electrical studies reveal a linear relationship of resistivity values with molar concentrations, while the conductivity values reveal inverse relationship with molar concentration.

Effect of the vacancy on the electrical transport properties of boron nitride nanosheets
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20918.html
Vacancies occur naturally in all crystalline materials. A vacancy is a point defect in a crystal in which an atom is removed at one of the lattice sites. The defect could be imported during the synthesis of the material or be added by defect engineering. In this paper by employing the density functional theory as well as the nonequilibrium Green&rsquo;s function approach, the structure and electronic properties of the perfect and defected BN nanosheet would be obtained and compared. In addition to the influence of the vacancy defect position, the effect of removed atom type is also studied. For this purpose, the defect is considered at the centre, left, and righthand sides of the nanosheet. It is seen that the electric current changes by changing the position of the vacancy defect and the type of removed atoms. This can be related to the electronic structures of BN nanosheets. In addition, the transmission and conductance of the defected BN nanosheets continuously change by changing the bias voltage. The obtained results can benefit the design and implementation of BN nanosheets in nanoelectronic systems and devices.

Modeling of discharge processes in a new type of pulseplasma ignition systems with a controlled spark gap
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21771.html
The results of computer and physical modeling of discharge processes in a new type of pulseplasma ignition systems for gas turbine engines with a controlled switching spark gap are presented. A circuit design model of a pulseplasma ignition system has been developed, which makes it possible to evaluate the patterns of discharge processes in a semiconductor spark plug depending on the parameters of the discharge circuits  the capacitances of highvoltage and lowvoltage storage capacitors, the inductance of the main discharge circuit. The results of computer simulation are confirmed experimentally, the increased efficiency of the ignition system with a controlled spark gap compared to the known circuit solutions containing two switching spark gaps is substantiated.

ThreeBody force eο¬ects on breakup and formation of 6Li nuclei
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20919.html
During helium transforms into heavier elements, both of 6Li radiative capture reaction and its breakup occur in the stars. 6Li radiative capture reaction and its inverse have been studied using Eο¬ective Field Theory (EFT), up to next to leading order (NLO). The deuteronalpha reaction and the photodisintegration rates of the 6Li(&gamma;,&alpha;)d reaction have been calculated. Alpha particle was assumed to be structureless and coulomb eο¬ects considered between the charged particles. The inverse reaction rate has been estimated for E1 and E2 transitions by adding the threebody forces, up to NLO. The scattering amplitude are calculated at the initial Pwave states of deuteronalpha for the sum of both E1 and E2 multipole transitions. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and those of other theoretical models, at the energies relevant to the BigBang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). The 6Li(&gamma;,&alpha;)d reaction rate is also found to be acceptable in comparison with the other theoretical results.

Rational solutions to the KdV equation from Riemann theta functions
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21772.html
Rational solutions to the KdV are constructed from the finite gap solutions of the KdV equation given in terms of abelian functions. For this we use a previous result giving the connection between Riemann theta functions and Fredholm determinants and also wronskians. By choosing the parameters of these solutions according to a number intended to move towards zero, we obtain rational solutions when this number tends towards zero. So, we construct a hierarchy of rational solutions depending on multi real parameters and we give explicitly expressions for the first orders.

Numerical investigation of the fullerene and doped fullerene effects on thermal performance of water basefluid
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20954.html
In this study, the fullerenes have inserted into water basefluid to investigate the atomic and thermal behavior of nanofluid and hybridnanofluid as heat transfer fluid. This choice derives from low cast and high thermal stability of this nanostructure. Our computational results from Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that the addition of nanoparticles with 4% atomic ratio produced an appreciable effect on the nanofluid. The maximum value of density, velocity, and temperature profile have reached to 0.029 atom/&Aring;3, 0.005 &Aring;/ps, and 321 ΜC. Its thermal conductivity would increase to 0.82 W/m.K. Heat flux reache to 2019 KW/m2 after t=10 ns. Also, the aggregation phenomenon detected after t= 5.84 ns. This hybridnanofluid has used to enhance the energy efficiency of the heat exchangers at high temperature for the nuclear industry applications for the first time. Numericaly, by the temperature increase of nanofluid structure to 625.15 K, thermal power of nanofluid reache to 3881 MW. The thermal Performance of hybridnanofluid can be improved by more than 30% by adding concentration of fullerene and doped fullerene at 4 vol%.

Electrical and optical parameterbased numerical simulation of highperformance CdTe, CIGS, and CZTS solar cells
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21829.html
The market for thinfilm solar cells is gradually increasing and is expected to grow to 27.11 billion dollars by 2030. The most extensively researched thin film technologies based on simulation right now include solar cells made of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), and Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS). This work aims to use free software that does accurate simulation using the electrical and optical parameters (absorption coefficients) published in the literature. Moreover, to optimize efficiency, numerical simulation of all the solar cells has been done for different buffer layers (Cadmium Sulfide (CdS), Zinc Sulfide (ZnS)) and transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers (Aluminum Zinc Oxide (AZO), and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)). To assess the performance of the solar cells, changes have been made in the thickness of TCO layers and the alteration of doping concentrations of buffer layers and absorber layers. The simulation shows that 0.1 &mu;m is the best TCO thickness. Furthermore, the AZO layer output outperforms the ITO layer in the simulation. It has also been investigated how employing a zinc telluride (ZnTe)based backsurface reflector (BSR) layer will affect the results. This work includes representations of all the solar cell's open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc), maximum power (Pm), fill factor (FF), and photovoltaic efficiencies. The simulation's findings could be useful in the creation and comprehension of highefficiency thin film solar cells.

Temperature effects role on the plasma antenna radiation pattern
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_20983.html
The radiation and propagation characteristics of a plasma column is theoretically studied in isothermal/nonisothermal regimes. The Boltzmann and Maxwell equations are employed to derive the radial profile of the electron temperature, electron density and the field components. It is found that by increasing the plasma density the plasma system goes toward the nonisothermal regime. It is shown that for the high values of the electron density, the isothermal approach would be violated and it must be replaced with the nonisothermal approach. This model is applicable to the plasma column with azimuthally symmetric plasma density. The present results are important from practical point of view and can be used in design and tuning of the plasma antennas.

Bohm sheath criterion for electronegative warm plasma carrying seconadary electron emission in an oblique magnetic field
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21158.html
The Bohm sheath criterion is formulated by using Sagdeev potential approach for electronegative warm plasma under oblique magnetic field and secondary electron emission from the wall. In this model the effect of collisions between positive ions and neutral, ionization, electronegativity, nonextensivity and temperature ratio (positive/negative ion to electron) are also considered to get the exact behavior of velocity of positive ions at the edge of the sheath. Results are compared with the cases of collisionless, ionizationless and absence of electron emission from the wall and it is found that the Bohm velocity for this case is decreased faster with the increase of nonextensivity and the angle of inclination of the applied magnetic field. Also, Bohm velocity gets increased when the electric field at the edge of the sheath increases. Although Bohm velocity does not depend on the strength of the magnetic field, but the slope in the electrostatic potential gets increased and the sheath thickness decreased on raising the strength of the magnetic field.

Ion acoustic cnoidal waves in electronpositronion plasmas with qnonextensive electrons and positrons and high relativistic ions
https://jtap.srbiau.ac.ir/article_21057.html
In this paper propagation of the nonlinear cnoidal ionacoustic waves in unmagnetized electronpositronion plasma have been studied. The nonextensivity distribution function was used to describe the plasma electrons and positrons, while plasma ions are taken high relativistic.We have used the reductive perturbation method (RPM) to study the characteristic of ionacoustic cnoidal waves in this threecomponent plasma. The Kortewegde Vries equation, which describes the nonlinear waves in such plasma, has been derived. In this work, we have investigated the effects of relativistic ions and qnonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons on the characteristics of the ionacoustic periodic (cnoidal) wave, such as the amplitude, wavelength, and frequency